One thinks of asymmetrical bilateral relations where each country imports more from its right-wing trading partner and exports more to its left-wing trading partner when countries are in a circle. That is why each country`s trade is balanced multilaterally rather than bilaterally. Each government`s Nash tariff then becomes lower than its right-wing partner`s Nash tariff relative to its left-wing partner, creating bilateral power imbalances. In this case, the application of the multilateral penal system can help governments maintain more cooperative tariffs by allowing each government to use the greater punitive force of its right-wing trading partner (a higher Nash tariff) against the spreads of their left-wing partner. With regard to the added benefit of a multilateral enforcement mechanism over an uncoordinated bilateral enforcement mechanism, Bowen (2013) introduces the concept of leniency that indicates the willingness of each government to tolerate a series of less favourable bilateral tariffs (i.e. their lower import duties than their bilateral partners) that depend on the realization of political shocks requiring such asymmetric duties for reasons of political efficiency. The basic structure of the business model developed by Bowen (2013) is similar to the multilateral business model of Maggi (1999), in which each country is a pair of products related to symmetrical relations, allowing a total separation of any bilateral trade relationship with the multilateral relationship. As maggi (1999) pointed out, multilateral application does not add value in relation to bilateral application against gaps if there is no asymmetry between countries. Full integration of Member States is the last level of trade agreements.
Thematic funds can be made available for any purpose, including technologies to improve social well-being in ways other than improving productivity, such as addressing “social needs.” The main restriction to this draft directive is the ability to indicate the content of the programme. A very broad definition requires less expertise to draft a call for proposals or a “call” and more expertise to evaluate the proposals received. A way to peer-review proposals in the hope that a peer review body can be found with sufficient expertise. Closer definitions of themes not only require more expertise, but can also filter out new and innovative approaches by “over-bidding” the type of proposals to be made. While thematic financing is a dominant concept for supply-based measures, several other specialized designs have been or are being used, including signalling strategies, protectionist strategies and measures to influence the financing of investments in innovation.